General foundations of political system
General foundations of political system of Ukraine are defined by its Constitution. In accordance with its organic law, Ukraine is a sovereign and independent, democratic, social and jural state.
Democratic essence of the Ukrainian state is enshrined by the constitutional provisions concerning its form of government - a republic, governed by sovereignty of the people. State power is divided into legislative, executive and judicial branches, acting within their competence. Constitution envisages the principle of political, economic and ideological diversity of social life.
The social character of Ukrainian state results in constitutional regulation of issues related to use of property and protection of all subjects of property right, social orientation of the economy, equality of all subjects of property right before the law, maintenance of ecologic safety and balance within Ukraine's territory and other socially important measures.
Jural essence of the state is supported by provisions related to supremacy of law and direct action of constitutional norms. The state is responsible before the people for its activities. According to the Constitution, the main task of the state is to establish and promote human rights and freedoms.
Ukraine is a unitary state, which territory is integral and inviolable. The state has a single citizenship. The state language of Ukraine is Ukrainian.
State power institutions of Ukraine
The President of Ukraine
The Constitution of Ukraine designates the President as the Head of State, acting on its behalf. The President is a guarantor of national sovereignty, territorial integrity, adherence to the Constitution, human and civil rights and freedoms. The President is elected by the citizens of the state on the basis of equal and direct universal suffrage through secret vote. The term of presidential office is five years. Only a citizen of Ukraine, who was residing in Ukraine for ten years before the elections, has voting rights and speaks state language, may be elected President. President may hold his/her post no longer than two consecutive terms.
On 23 January 2005 Mr. Victor Yuschenko was officially inaugurated as the President of Ukraine.
The Verkhovna Rada (Parliament) of Ukraine
The only legislative body of Ukraine is the Parliament - The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. People's deputies of Ukraine are elected by the citizens of Ukraine on the basis of equal and direct universal suffrage through secret vote. The election system is mixed - majority and proportional.
Altogether 450 deputies are elected. 225 of them are elected at single-mandate constituencies on the basis of relative majority, and another 225 are elected proportionally at multi-mandate national constituency from the lists of candidates coming from political parties and their election blocks.
The powers of people's deputies of Ukraine are established by the Constitution and laws of Ukraine. People's deputies of Ukraine may voluntarily unite themselves into deputies' groups (factions) of no less then 25 members. Deputies' groups are formed both at party and non-party basis. Deputies' groups formed at party basis are called 'factions'. Non-party deputies may join a faction if they support the program of relevant party. Deputies' groups formed at non-party basis unite deputies who share the same or similar views of national, social and economic development.
New elections to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine will take place on 26 March 2006.
Since 6 July 2006 Mr. Oleksandr Moroz has been the Head of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.
The Government of Ukraine
The Cabinet of Ministers (Government) of Ukraine is the supreme executive authority. Its actions are based on the Constitution, laws of Ukraine and presidential orders. The Government is responsible to the President and is controlled by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, to which it also must report. In practice, this dependency results in presidential appointment of a Prime Minister (with parliamentary consent). The President may also suspend Prime Minister's authorities and discharge him/her. Upon Prime Minister's submission, the President appoints and discharges the members of Cabinet of Ministers and other heads of central executive authorities.
Parliamentary control of the Government and its reporting to the Verkhovna Rada results is parliamentary approval of government-submitted annual budget, parliamentary resolutions on fulfillment of budgetary provisions, approval or rejection of governmental program and control of government's work.
On 4 August 2006 Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine approved Mr. Viktor Yanukovych to the post of Prime Minister of Ukraine.
The system of judicial authority
Legal proceedings are carried out by the Constitutional Court and courts of general jurisdiction. The supreme authority of the system of courts of general jurisdiction is the Supreme Court of Ukraine. Legal proceedings may be carried out only by courts. Courts' jurisdiction covers all legal relationships in the state. The system of courts of general jurisdiction is based on the principles of territorial and special jurisdiction.
The Constitutional Court of Ukraine is a separate entity, independent from the courts of general jurisdiction. It cannot be used as a cassation, appeal or supervisory authority for the courts of general jurisdiction. The activities of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine promote constitutional control in all spheres, stabilization and strengthening of constitutional order, establishment of principle of primacy of law and the supreme legal force of the Constitution, promotion of constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens.
Ukraine is a country of Central-Eastern Europe. It occupies the South-Western part of Eastern-European Plains and a part of the Carpathian and Crimean mountains. It stretches for 893 km from North to the South and for 1316 km from West to East. Ukraine is located in moderate latitudes and has outlets to Black and Azov Seas.
The total length of Ukraine` land and maritime borders is 7590 km.Ukraine has land borders with the Russian Federation (2063 km), the Republic of Belarus (975 km), the Republic of Poland (542.5 km), Slovak Republic (98 km), Hungary (135 km), Romania (608 km) and the Republic of Moldova (1194 km). The borders with countries of Central and Western Europe are 2590 km.
National Symbols of Ukraine
- The State Flag of
Various types of flags were used in various periods of Ukrainian history. The earliest mention of the modern national colors of Ukraine dates back to the period of Hetman State and is found in the Lviv Chronicle of the 17th century. Supposedly, the coat of arms of the city of Lviv, in yellow and blue colors, was granted to the city by Prince Lev. Yellow and blue also appeared in the coat of arms of the "Ruthenian Voyevodstvo (Province)" which was part of Poland in the 14th and 15th centuries. The description of some military flags from the times of the Hetman State (after the Periaslav Council of 1654) mention azure as the color of the flag cloth bearing different embroidered emblems and mottoes. Along with azure, often in combination with yellow, the favorite colors of the Kozak state were crimson and red.
The heraldic conception
of national colors that had been passed down from ancient times had been lost.
Instead, blue was justified as being the color of the sky and yellow as the
color of the wheat fields. On March 22, 1918 the Ukrainian Central Rada simultaneously
adopted the yellow-and-blue flag and the trident as the national coat of arms.
On November 12, 1918, the government of the Western Ukrainian National Republic
also adopted these colors for its state flag. In accordance with the resolution
of the Ukrainian National Rada of June 27, 1949, the state flag of the Ukrainian
National Republic consisted of two equal horizontal stripes: blue at the top
and yellow at the bottom.
When Ukraine declared its
independence in 1991, it adopted a new National Flag on January 28, 1992 - a
horizontally 2-striped flag. The upper stripe, blue, signifying the open sky
and the bottom yellow stripe, symbolizing the wheat fields of Ukraine.
- The State Emblem
The national emblem - the coat of arms, the flag, and the seal - alternated during the millennium of Ukrainian history owing to various political, social, cultural, and other factors - a phenomenon common to many European nations.
The contemporary national
coat of arms of Ukraine, Azure or trident, is the most ancient as well as most
dignified of all the Ukrainian insignia of nationwide significance. Its emblazonment
represents a synthesis of a preheraldic device of the ruling dynasty in the
tenth century and of the oldest Ukrainian national heraldic tinctures from the
The problems associated with the origin and of the original meaning of the Ukrainian trident have still not been solved by scholars. The archaeological finds of tridents in Ukraine go back to the 1st century AD.
Undoubtedly this emblem
was a mark of authority and a mystic symbol of one or of several of the ethnic
groups which inhabited ancient Ukrainian territory and which came to compose
the Ukrainian nation.
The trident, left to Volodymyr
the Great by his ancestors became a hereditary preheraldic badge of all his
descendants and rulers of medieval Ukraine - the Grand Princes of Kyiv and the
Princes of all other constituent principalities of the vast Kyivan Realm. Tridents
and bidents are found on many objects of that period: coins, stones, and bricks
of significant buildings (i.e., palaces, castles, cathedrals), armor, signets,
seals, official jewelry, ceramics and manuscripts.
After the renascence of
independent Ukraine on January 22, 1918, the trident was adopted, by a law of
March 22, 1918, as the national device of the Ukrainian National Republic. It
was adopted in the form of a Great and a Small Coat of Arms representing the
classic trident of Volodymyr the Great in an ornamental wreath. The trident
was emblazoned in official use (e.g., in uniforms of armed forces, and service
- The State Anthem
The Ukrainian State Anthem, Shche ne vmerla Ukraina ("Ukraine Has Not Yet Perished" - or "Ukraine Lives On") is of quite recent origin. Rev. Mykhailo Verbytskyi (1815-70), composer of many Ukrainian songs realized the need for an anthem at the first Ukrainian concert in Peremyshl, in Western Ukraine, to honor the poet Taras Shevchenko. In the same year a poem, "Shche ne vmerla Ukraina" appeared in the Lviv magazine Meta ("The Goal"), written by Pavlo Chubynsky (1839-84). However, the magazine mistakenly accredited the poem to Shevchenko. Rev. Verbytskyi was impressed by the poem's simplicity yet strong patriotic appeal, and set it to music.
The popularity of the song
rapidly spread throughout the country. In 1864 it was sung at the conclusion
of a program in Permyshyl honoring Taras Shevchenko. Shche ne vmerla Ukraina
was first published in 1885 in the Lviv music anthology "Kobzar".
Finally, in 1917 it became the rallying song of the Ukrainian revolution and
was officially adopted as the state anthem of the Ukrainian Republic.
According to Article 20 of the Constitution of Ukraine (adopted on June 28, 1996) the State Anthem of Ukraine is the national anthem with the music of M. Verbytskyi and words, confirmed by law and approved by a constitutional majority of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.
The name of State
For ages Ukraine has assumed
many names. Among these names are Oriana, Roxolania, Scythia, Sarmatia, and
the State of Anths. In the 9th century AD, the name "Rus" first appeared
in Kyiv chronicle where it referred to the King and his men. According to Arab
and Byzantian written sources, in the 12th century AD Rus was on the Taman Peninsula
(Tmutorokan). Thereafter, Chervona (Red) Rus (or Halychyna), Bila (White) Rus
(the territory of present-day Bielorus), and Western Rus Lands (Volyn) were
referred to as Rus Provinces. Generally, the name "Rus" had been applied
to all the lands of Kyiv Rus since the 6th century AD.
In 1334, Mala (Small) Rus
was the name first used in referring to the Halytsko-Volyn Principality as a
successor of the Great Kyiv Rus, which survived after the Mongol-Tatar invasion.
Later, the name spread to the entire Ukrainian territory.
At the same time, the name
"Ukraina" (Ukraine) was used widely as an unofficial version of "Rus".
This name was first come upon in the Kyiv Manuscript (Ipatiev's version) where
it was used to describe Pereyaslav, Kyiv and Chernihiv. Halych Ukraine is mentioned
in the Halych-Volyn Manuscript in 1187 and 1213. In 1650, a French engineer
and traveler, G.L. de Beauplan, published a book titled, "Description d'Ukraine"
where he used the word "Ukraine" to describe Halychyna and Podilia
(low lands). During Cossack times, since the 16th century, Cossack lands which
included the lands along the Dnieper (Naddniprianshchyna) were called Ukraine.
The Cossacks' State headed by Bohdan Khmelnytski was also called Ukraine. This
is corroborated in the documents of many hetmans (Cossack leaders, or headmen)
- from Khmelnytski to Ivan Mazepa and P. Orlyk. Ukraine became popular in Western
Europe after 1661 owing to publications by G.L. de Beauplan.
Beginning in the 19th century,
the name Ukraine was used to denote the entire territory where Ukrainians lived.
Thus, all other names irrespective of their origin and length of use were removed.
After the declaration of
the Ukrainian National Republic (1917), the Ukrainian Hetman State (1918), the
Western Ukrainian People's Republic (1918), and Carpathian Ukraine (1939), "Ukraine"
became the official name of the country. In 1919, Ukraine was called the Ukrainian
Socialists Soviet Republic, and from 1937-1991 it was referred to as the Ukrainian
Soviet Socialist Republic.
Finally, the historical name "Ukraine" was given back to the country after it declared its independence in 1991. On June 28, 1996, this official name was corroborated into the Constitution of Ukraine.
The territory of Ukrainian State is 603,700 km2, or 5.7% of European territory and 0.44% of world's territory. Its territory is bigger than those of France (544,000 km2), Spain (505,000 km2), Sweden (450,000 km2), Germany (356,000 km2) and Poland (312,000 km2). Due to its advantageous location in the center of Europe and wide network of air, railroad, sea and automobile transport, Ukraine is a transit country for passengers and cargo from many countries.
Administrative and territorial system
Ukraine is comprised from the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and 24 oblasts: Vynnytsya, Volyn, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Zhitomir, Zakarpattya, Zaporizhzhya, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kyiv, Kirovograd, Luhansk, Lviv, Mykolaiv, Odesa, Poltava, Rivne, Sumy, Ternopil, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmelnitsky, Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsy.
The cities of Kyiv and Sevastopol have a special status set by the laws of Ukraine. Ukraine has 490 rayons (regions), 446 cities, 907 towns and 10,196 villages.
Ukrainian territorial system is based on unity and integrity of national territory, combination of centralization and decentralization of state power, balance of social and economic development of regions taking into account their historical, economic, geographic and demographic features as well as ethnic and cultural traditions.
Nature and climate
Ukraine's relief is mostly flat. 95% of lands are plains and 5% are mountains. Ukraine's flat landscape is divided into three zones - mixed forests, forest-steppe and steppe.
Ukraine is located in two climatic zones: moderate and subtropical (southern shore of Crimea). Mountainous regions have specific climatic conditions due to vertical division, various inclinations, local atmospheric circulations etc. Generally speaking, Ukraine belongs to the countries with moderate climate, and change of seasons can be clearly observed during the year here. The weather and climate of Ukraine's territory positively influence economic activity, tourism and recreation, as well as allow for use of ecologically clean resources of wind and sun.
Bowels of Ukrainian earth are rich with various minerals, including coal, iron ore, oil and gas, gravel, salt etc. Donbass is Ukraine's main coal production base; its deposits are estimated at 109 bln. t. Dnipro lignite basin contains about 6 bln. t of lignite. Oil and natural gas are located in Dnipro-Donetsk (80%) and Black Sea-Crimea regions. Ukraine covers 10-15% of its oil consummation and 25% of gas consummation using its own resources. 3 bln. t of peat and shale oil have been located.
Iron ore is found in Krivoy Rig (18.7 bln. t), Kremenchuck (4.5 bln. t), Bilozersky (2.5 bln. t) and Kerch (1.8 bln. t) basins. Nikopol basin contains the biggest deposits of manganese ore in the world. Nickel, chrome, titanium and mercury (2nd place in the world) deposits are also considerable. Recently more than 15 gold deposits were located.
Ukraine's deposits of rock products place it among top producers of Europe and the world. It has the biggest ozocerite and brimstone deposits in the world. Its deposits of graphite are biggest in the continent. Rock and potassium salt have been mined in Ukraine for ages. Ukraine's nature created rich basis for metallurgy, chemical, porcelain, faience industries, production of ceramics and construction materials. Deposits of precious and semiprecious stone were found in Ukraine. They include beryl, amethyst, amber, jasper, rock crystal, morion etc.). Ukrainian mineral waters are very valuable. The springs are located in Mirgorod, Svalyava, Truskavets and Feodosia. Mud from towns of Evpatoria and Saki has good healing abilities.
The soil of our country is one of its riches. 2/3 of Ukraine's soil are black earth.
Ukraine is a sea power. In the south it is washed by Black and Azov Seas. Black Sea's coastline in Ukraine is 1540 km. The shores of Black Sea have many firths - Dniester, Dnipro, Bug and others. Black Sea is connected to Sea of Azov, Sea of Marmora and Mediterranean. Therefore is has outlet to the world ocean. Southern location, favorable climate, sandy beaches make Black and Azov Seas one of the most important and attractive recreational spots in Ukraine.
Ukraine's territory is covered with dense network of large and small rivers. Their total number is 73,000. Ukraine has about 20,000 lakes. The biggest river systems are Dnipro, Danube, Dnistro, Southern Bug and Northern Donets. Dnipro (Dnepr) is the largest river in Ukraine. It is also third largest and longest river in Europe. A cascade of reservoirs (Kyiv, Kaniv, Kremenchuck, Dniprodzerzhinsk and Kakhovka) has been built on the river, thus increasing the efficiency of use of Dnipro's hydro energy recourses.
Ukrainian flora includes about 30,000 plants. Natural vegetative complexes are widely used as a basis for cattle-breeding, beekeeping, hunting and collection of wild medicinal herbs. Due to economic activity, flora of Ukraine underwent through considerable changes. A network of natural reserve fund establishments has been created to preserve and rehabilitate it.
Variety of Ukraine's natural conditions led to variety of species of animal world. About 44,800 animal species are found in Ukraine.
Ukraine has 49.5 mln. residents (as of beginning of 2001). In terms of population, Ukraine ranks 5th in Europe (after Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France) and 21st in the world. It has 7.3% of Europe's and 1% of global population. The majority of people (68%) live in urban areas. 32% live in countryside.
The country has inadequate demographic situation. The population growth is negative. The reasons of this are ecologic crisis due to wrong use of industry, radiation contamination and economic difficulties.
Average life expectancy is 61.6 years for male and 72.8 years for female. A process of nation ageing can be observed. Pensioners comprise 28-35% of total population. In those terms, Ukraine ranks 52nd in the world. For many years, gender structure remains stable - 46% are men, 54% are women.
Ethnic Ukrainians comprise 73% of population. 1989 census showed that 37,420,000 Ukrainians and 4,830,000 people of Ukrainian origin lived in Ukraine. Many ethnic Ukrainians live outside Ukraine: 10,936,000 in Russia, 2,230,000 in the USA, 1,386,000 in Kazakhstan, 1,311,000 in Belarus, 1,071,000 in Canada and 850,000 in Poland. Ukrainians are one of biggest nations of Europe and the world and the second largest nation among Slavic subgroup.
For a long time, Ukrainian territory was divided among neighboring states. Each of them conducted policy of de-nationalization of Ukrainians, striving to fully assimilate them. Restoration of independence in 1991 facilitates consolidation of Ukrainians, development of their national self-consciousness and gathering everyone feeling his/her belonging to the Ukrainian nation around the Ukrainian state.
More than 14,000,000 people of other ethnic groups live in Ukraine, comprising 27% of nation's population. The biggest national minority are Russians (11,400,000 people, 21% of population). For ages, Crimean Tatars, Jews, Romanians, Moldavians, Belarussians, Bulgarians, Poles, Hungarians, Greeks, Armenians, Gypsies, Germans, Azerbaijani, Gagaus, Uzbeks, Lithuanians, Kazakhs, Czechs, Slovaks and people of other ethnic groups have been living in Ukraine. Article 11 of the Constitution of Ukraine guarantees development of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious originality of all indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities.
Ukraine has well-developed scientific and industrial base. The national economy includes such spheres as heavy machine building, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, shipbuilding, automotive industry (buses, cars and trucks), manufacturing of tractors and other agriculture machinery, diesel locomotive manufacturing, manufacturing of machine-tools, turbines and aircraft engines, production of power plants', oil extraction and chemical equipment and so on. Ukraine is also a powerful manufacturer of energy.
Several fields of Ukrainian economy demonstrate high technological level of development. The country is producing carrier rockets, satellites and space research equipment. Ukraine is a considerable producer of military equipment, including tanks, military transport aircrafts, SAM complexes and optical equipment.
Antonov aircraft, lighter-aboard ships, walking excavators, precise machinery, and electric welding equipment are produced using state-of-art technologies and comply with the top world standards.