wish to express our appreciation to you for convening this public meeting on a
fundamental issue such as complex crises, which call for UN response.
We are also pleased to have among us USG Jan Egeland, head of the UN
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, and Ambassador Marjatta
Rasi, President of ECOSOC.
believe that our response to crises throughout the world has not been entirely
appropriate – the military approach to security has been superseding the human
approach, and as stated in your non-paper of May 18, we consider that “the
intrinsic link between peace and development must remain at the core of UN
response” to complex crises.
have laid down a series of questions that this debate on complex crises should
attempt to address with clarity and objectivity. My comments shall focus on two
of those topics: preventive diplomatic action and post-conflict peace-building.
preventive diplomatic action – or what we could call conflict avoidance –
we believe that a much more energetic, and consistent role must be played
by the whole collective security mechanism provided by the United Nations
actually means a rededication of our Organization and all its Members to the
resolve of “the peoples of the United Nations” made clear in the Charter’s
Preamble. It means also a renewed commitment to the lofty aims of the Purposes
and Principles contained in the Charter.
Sixtieth Anniversary in 2005 represents a golden opportunity that must not be
missed. It should be the culmination of the many efforts now being carried out.
realities are changing at an alarming pace, thus requiring UN institutional
change, including a reform of the Security Council, as its composition and
procedures became clearly inadequate for the present needs relating to its
primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security.
revitalization of the General Assembly is also required. Alongside with the
updating of its methods of work, it must make full use of the potentialities
envisaged in Articles 10, 11 and 13 of the Charter.
this connection, a larger role should be played by the GA in considering the
general principles of co-operation in the maintenance of international peace and
security, and in drawing the attention of the Council to situations that are
likely to endanger peace and security. The General Assembly should also
significantly increase its role in promoting co-operation in the political
field, thus enhancing its contribution to the strengthening of international
peace and security. Appropriate recommendations should be made to that effect.
instrumentalities relating to the pacific settlement disputes, actions with
respect to the threats to peace, breaches of peace and acts of aggression, as
well as regional arrangements should be urgently revisited. I refer to Chapters
VI, VII and VIII of the UN Charter.
organizations have an increasingly important role to play in the overall
international effort for peace and security, and some weeks ago we have
witnessed examples when briefed by the Chairman-in-office of the OSCE.
we see the primary role of these regional organizations as one of a preventive
nature. Their particularly important
contribution lies in addressing root causes for conflict and violations of human
rights before they escalate into major conflicts. Smaller regional organizations are more flexible and
are closer to the sources of conflict than the UN. They are in a better position
to detect the early symptoms and act promptly, thus preventing intrastate
differences to evolve into intolerance, prejudice, hatred and conflict.
root causes of conflict are often region specific: in Kosovo they might be very
different from those in Darfur, which might in turn widely differ from the
Haitian question. Preventive diplomacy should be consistently taken up by
regional organizations and we believe that partnership between these
organizations and the UN ought to be expanded.
welcome the periodic meetings promoted by the UN with regional organizations
aimed at optimizing the use of resources and avoiding duplication. In many
cases, the international community must provide assistance to enable regional
organizations to shoulder their responsibilities.
to say, when prevention fails and enforcement actions are needed, military
action should remain the prerogative of this Council, which may as well empower
regional arrangements to enforce action, as stated in article 53 of the Charter,
when such possibility is foreseen in their constitutive act.
President, underdevelopment and undereducation are found at the root of most
conflicts in the world.
Economic inequalities and poverty exacerbate differences
and intolerance and invariably kindle friction and, ultimately, conflict. From a
strictly academic perspective, it is worth noting that the root causes of
conflict will recur after any peacekeeping intervention, if sufficient attention
is not paid to sustained development, thus creating a very vicious, literally
brings me to the second topic: peace-building, in the sense of post-conflict
efforts that must follow a peacekeeping operation. As we have seen in our recent
debate on the issue, from the 15 peacekeeping operations now being deployed by
the UN, eight are complex ones.
complex crises, the State and society have eroded. Therefore, the UN cannot
limit itself to military security. A much broader concept of security has to be
applied to these situations – the population must be protected, humanitarian
assistance delivered, reconciliation among factions has to be forged, combatants
disarmed and reintegrated, interim authorities put in place, law and order
reestablished, elections organized, government institutions reformed,
infrastructure and the economy rebuilt.
believe that the element of economic reconstruction has not been underscored
enough in our resolutions. We need to apply more time and energy and to spend
our resources more effectively in quick-impact economic programs that could
transform in a short period of time the daily realities of individuals
themselves and small communities. We believe that the only way to sustain peace
is enhancing the development components of peacekeeping operations.
the Council is the primary organ for peace and security in the world, it is
therefore our responsibility to ensure that peacekeeping operations are
effective. But they can only be effective – and cost-effective – if we
incorporate mechanisms of sustained peace into our resolutions. Otherwise
countries and populations may easily fall back into conflict. We have to be more
creative in our common objective of sustained peace, requesting direct
involvement of UN development agencies and the ECOSOC, for instance. Our concept
of exit strategies must be linked primarily to realistic benchmarks, rather than
observe rigid deadlines.
recent events demonstrate that we are likely to remain mired in a long-term
struggle for peace and security. They also lead us to believe that much more
must be done by the Security Council, the GA and the ECOSOC, to ensure that the
apparent risk of a regional or global systemic failure ceases to exist.
operations are our established response to these events and their record show
many success stories. But whenever
peacekeeping is needed, conflict prevention has been needed before, and
peace-building will be needed afterwards.
might evolve, in the future, to the establishment of conflict-avoiding
operations. While we work within the current framework of peacekeeping, however,
we should be able to implement institutional change in the UN and to stimulate
regional organizations to enhance their reach for root causes of conflict. We
should also incorporate ever more elements of peace-building and post-conflict
reconstruction, in particular development and education capacities, into
Thank you very much.